WILLIAM BLAKE: GOLDEN STRING

Blake seeks to provide the Golden String which can lead us through the labyrinth of our experience or his own poetry.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

CONTRARY ENERGIES

Wikipedia Commons
Jerusalem
Plate 84

In Four Archetypes, Carl Jung provides some of his insights into his understanding of the operation of opposite polarities in psycho dynamics. Blake and Jung were both exploring the inner realities for which we use the term psyche. For this reason they tended to use a common terminology but with either glaring or subtle differences. Neither expected to be able to describe the workings of the psyche in rational terms. 

Blake might agree with Jung's statement on page 150 of Four Archetypes:

"The concepts of complex Psychology are, in essence, not intellectual formulations but names for certain areas of experience, and though they can be described they remain dead and irrepresentable to anyone who has not experienced them."


On page 40 Jung speaks of the origin of 'paired opposites' as a result of getting in touch with the 'secret fear' hidden in the unconscious. He associates the process with an experience of resolution which is so personal that words cannot capture it.

Page 40
"one identifies whenever there is a secret fear to be exorcised. What is feared is the unconscious and its magical influence.
...It is a psychological fact that a soon as we touch on these identifications we enter the realm of the syzgies, the paired opposites, where the One is never separated from the Other, its antithesis. It is field of personal experience which leads directly to the experience of individuation, the attainment of the self...This realm is so entirely one of immediate experience that it cannot be captured by any formula, but can only be hinted at to one who already knows."


Jung states that the fundamental organization of the psyche is based on polarity. Opposites form the poles in the energy system which drives the psyche. We cannot say anything about the psyche other than what the psyche is saying about itself. What we learn from the psyche is true even if to the reason it contradicts itself.

Page 149
"The conflict between the two dimensions of consciousness is simply an expression of the polaristic structure of the psyche, which like any other energy system is dependent on the tension of opposites. That is why there is no general psychological propositions which could not just as well be reversed: indeed reversibility proves their validity. We should remember that in any psychological discussion we are not saying anything about the psyche, but the psyche is speaking about itself."




We are familiar with Blake's contrary states as characteristic of the level of existence called Beulah which is basically the domain of Luvah and Vala. Damon tell us that it is "the realm of the Subconscious ... the source of poetic inspiration and dreams."

These passages from Blake indicate the fundamental position which he perceived to indicate the work of contraries. Like Jung he thinks that working out the relationships between contraries is necessary in order to understand the dynamics of the human psyche. The work goes on in the depths of the mind as well as in the place where life is experienced externally. 'Love Pity and Sweet Compassion' form the milieu in which the reconciliation of contraries is accomplished. The contraries must be brought together in order that additional battles within the psyche can be undertaken and resolved. Beulah is provided as a protected place of repose until the Soul awakes to further realizations. 

Marriage of Heaven and Hell, Plate 3, (E 34)
 "Without Contraries is no progression.  Attraction and
Repulsion, Reason and Energy, Love and Hate, are necessary to
Human existence.
  From these contraries spring what the religious call Good &
Evil. Good is the passive that obeys Reason[.] Evil is the active 
springing from Energy.
  Good is Heaven. Evil is Hell."

Milton, Plate 30 [33], (E 129)  
"There is a place where Contrarieties are equally True
This place is called Beulah, It is a pleasant lovely Shadow
Where no dispute can come. Because of those who Sleep.
Into this place the Sons & Daughters of Ololon descended
With solemn mourning into Beulahs moony shades & hills           
Weeping for Milton: mute wonder held the Daughters of Beulah
Enrapturd with affection sweet and mild benevolence

Beulah is evermore Created around Eternity; appearing
To the Inhabitants of Eden, around them on all sides.
But Beulah to its Inhabitants appears within each district       
As the beloved infant in his mothers bosom round incircled
With arms of love & pity & sweet compassion. But to
The Sons of Eden the moony habitations of Beulah,
Are from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant Rest."

Milton, Plate 48, (E 196)
"Eternity groan'd. & was troubled, at the image of Eternal Death!

Beneath the bottoms of the Graves, which is Earths central joint,
There is a place where Contrarieties are equally true:
(To protect from the Giant blows in the sports of intellect,     
Thunder in the midst of kindness, & love that kills its beloved:
Because Death is for a period, and they renew tenfold.)
From this sweet Place Maternal Love awoke Jerusalem 
With pangs she forsook Beulah's pleasant lovely shadowy Universe
Where no dispute can come; created for those who Sleep."       
 

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

FOUR FUNCTIONS

On Page 116 of Four Archetypes, Carl Jung made this statement:

" I have said previously that three functions can be differentiated, and only one remains under the spell of the unconscious...It is an empirical fact that one function becomes more of less successfully differentiated, which on that account is known as the superior or main function, and together with extroversion or introversion constitutes the type of conscious attitude. This function has associated with it one or two partially differentiated auxiliary functions which hardly ever attain the same degree of differentiation as the main function, that is the same degree of applicability by the will. Accordingly they possess a higher degree of spontaneity than the main function which displays a large measure of reliability and is amenable to intentions. The fourth, inferior function proves to be inaccessible to our will. It appears now as a teasing and distracting imp, now as a deus ex machina. But always it comes and goes of its own volition. From this it is clear that even the differentiated functions have only partially freed themselves from the unconscious; for the rest they are still rooted in it and to that extent operate under its rule. Hence the three 'differentiated' functions at the disposal of the ego have three corresponding unconscious components that have not yet broken loose from the unconscious. And just as the three conscious and differentiated parts of these functions are confronted by a fourth, undifferentiated function that acts as a painfully disturbing factor, so also the superior function seems to have its worst enemy in the unconscious. Nor should we omit to mention one final turn of the screw: like the devil who delights in disguising himself as an angel of light, the inferior function secretly and mischievously influences the superior function most of all, just as the latter represses the former most strongly."

The fact that Jung and Blake each divided the psyche into four discrete entities causes us to look for similarities and difference in their views. The emphasis in this paragraph from Jung is upon the roles played by various functions and the degree of consciousness they exhibit. An individual psyche is dominated by one function which expresses the way the individual presents himself. Blake wrote of the alteration of the position of the Zoas as a breakdown in one organization of the psyche as it was replaced by another. To Blake the four Zoas as they existed in the eternal dimension were unblemished; they each played a role which was essential but there was no conflict. When Urizen conceived of the idea of moving into Urthona's domain with the help of Luvah the whole balance was disturbed. Jung's system originated with four functions of unequal power. Any of the functions might be dominant with its opposite weakened to an inferior position. A disturbance in Jung's system came from lack of consciousness especially in the function that is opposite to the superior function. Jung emphasized the battle between the conscious and the unconscious as the dynamic motivating psychic activity. The motive force in Blake's dynamic was re-assuming the balanced forces among the Zoas so that each expressed its proper role as part of a fourfold psyche.

Letters, To Thomas Butts, (E 722)
    " Now I a fourfold vision see
     And a fourfold vision is given to me
     Tis fourfold in my supreme delight
     And three fold in soft Beulahs night
     And twofold Always.  May God us keep
     From Single vision & Newtons sleep"

Milton, Plate 3, (E 97)
"Terrified Los stood in the Abyss & his immortal limbs
Grew deadly pale; he became what he beheld: for a red
Round Globe sunk down from his Bosom into the Deep in pangs  
He hoverd over it trembling & weeping. suspended it shook
The nether Abyss in temblings. he wept over it, he cherish'd it
In deadly sickening pain: till separated into a Female pale
As the cloud that brings the snow: all the while from his Back
A blue fluid exuded in Sinews hardening in the Abyss       
Till it separated into a Male Form howling in Jealousy

Within labouring. beholding Without: from Particulars to Generals
Subduing his Spectre, they Builded the Looms of Generation
They Builded Great Golgonooza Times on Times Ages on Ages
First Orc was Born then the Shadowy Female: then All Los's Family
At last Enitharmon brought forth Satan Refusing Form, in vain
The Miller of Eternity made subservient to the Great Harvest
That he may go to his own Place Prince of the Starry Wheels
Plate 4                                                     
Beneath the Plow of Rintrah & the harrow of the Almighty
In the hands of Palamabron. Where the Starry Mills of Satan
Are built beneath the Earth & Waters of the Mundane Shell
Here the Three Classes of Men take their Sexual texture Woven
The Sexual is Threefold: the Human is Fourfold"              

Jerusalem, Plate 96, (E 256)
"Soon all around remote the Heavens burnt with flaming fires    
And Urizen & Luvah & Tharmas & Urthona arose into
Albions Bosom: Then Albion stood before Jesus in the Clouds
Of Heaven Fourfold among the Visions of God in Eternity
Plate 97
Awake! Awake Jerusalem! O lovely Emanation of Albion
Awake and overspread all Nations as in Ancient Time
For lo! the Night of Death is past and the Eternal Day
Appears upon our Hills: Awake Jerusalem, and come away"
Wikipedia Commons
Book of Urizen
Copy G, Plate 16

Saturday, January 12, 2019

SHADOWY WORLD

Yale Center for British Art
Jerusalem
Plate 14

We live within force fields which carry 'messages.' Receivers may be either the senses of animate beings or sensors which respond in ways outside of sense perception. The world outside of our limited consciousness we perceive as shadow because we have not developed our means of perception.

Blake wrote:
"There is a Void, outside of Existence, which if enterd into 
Englobes itself & becomes a Womb, such was Albions Couch 
A pleasant Shadow of Repose calld Albions lovely Land
His Sublime & Pathos become Two Rocks fixd in the Earth
His Reason his Spectrous Power, covers them above                
Jerusalem his Emanation is a Stone laying beneath
O [Albion behold Pitying] behold the Vision of Albion"
Jerusalem, Frontispiece

In the book Four Archetypes, by C G Jung on page 57 is the statement:
"I should only like to point out that the inferior function is practically identical with the dark side of the human personality. The darkness which clings to every personality is the door into the unconscious and the gateway of dreams, from which the those two twilight figures, the shadow and the anima, step into our nightly visions or, remaining invisible, take possession of our ego-consciousness. A man possessed by his own shadow is forever standing in his own light and falling into his own traps."

The Shadow world to Blake is not distant but the world in which we live. We enter into it when we relinquish our ability to perceive Eternity. The features of the natural landscape are perceived to be our reality rather than messengers pointing to realities of the Eternal dimension. However this world is for a purpose: 
"But whatever is visible to the Generated Man, 
Is a Creation of mercy & love, from the Satanic Void."
Although this world of shadow is a poor substitute for the Eternal world of Reality it is provided to man as a gift and a mercy until he is capable of bearing the light which is too strong or bright for his weak senses to assimilate into a more expansive vision.

Ego-consciousness in Jung's system develops out of its predecessor the unconscious, which continues to exist and to maintain abilities which assert influence. The tendency of the ego-consciousness is to reject the content of the unconscious as obsolete and unworthy of attention. Jung asserts that if the unconscious is not allowed to find expression in the conscious mind it will subvert activities of the ego-consciousness through surreptitious devices.
 
It could be said that Blake's shadow world in which we live is Jung's unconscious which the ego-consciousness is constantly attempting to draw into the realm of consciousness. However, Blake's Eternity is not Jung's consciousness because it is not limited to the individual as is Jung's concept. A point at which Blake and Jung agree is that there is no need to discard the dark contents which are unacceptable to a higher level of development. The material whose value has gone unrecognized can be transformed and assimilated as the psyche is made whole.


Jerusalem, Plate 13, (E 157)
"The Vegetative Universe, opens like a flower from the Earths center:
In which is Eternity. It expands in Stars to the Mundane Shell   
And there it meets Eternity again, both within and without,
And the abstract Voids between the Stars are the Satanic Wheels.

There is the Cave; the Rock; the Tree; the Lake of Udan Adan;
The Forest, and the Marsh, and the Pits of bitumen deadly:
The Rocks of solid fire: the Ice valleys: the Plains             
Of burning sand: the rivers, cataract & Lakes of Fire:
The Islands of the fiery Lakes: the Trees of Malice: Revenge:
And black Anxiety; and the Cities of the Salamandrine men:
(But whatever is visible to the Generated Man,
Is a Creation of mercy & love, from the Satanic Void.)           
The land of darkness flamed but no light, & no repose:
The land of snows of trembling, & of iron hail incessant:
The land of earthquakes: and the land of woven labyrinths:
The land of snares & traps & wheels & pit-falls & dire mills:
The Voids, the Solids, & the land of clouds & regions of waters:
With their inhabitants: in the Twenty-seven Heavens beneath Beulah:
Self-righteousnesses conglomerating against the Divine Vision:
A Concave Earth wondrous, Chasmal, Abyssal, Incoherent!
Forming the Mundane Shell: above; beneath: on all sides surrounding
Golgonooza: Los walks round the walls night and day.
He views the City of Golgonooza, & its smaller Cities:
The Looms & Mills & Prisons & Work-houses of Og & Anak:
The Amalekite: the Canaanite: the Moabite: the Egyptian:
And all that has existed in the space of six thousand years:
Permanent, & not lost not lost nor vanishd, & every little act,  
Word, work, & wish, that has existed, all remaining still
In those Churches ever consuming & ever building by the Spectres
Of all the inhabitants of Earth wailing to be Created:
Shadowy to those who dwell not in them, meer possibilities:
But to those who enter into them they seem the only substances   
For every thing exists & not one sigh nor smile nor tear,
PLATE 14
One hair nor particle of dust, not one can pass away."

Wednesday, January 9, 2019

EXCHANGE OF ENERGIES

Wikipedia Commons
Illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts

You can't turn poetry into prose and not lose the essence which has been distilled into elusive images. But you can live with the images until they begin to yield that essence. Blake's Horses of Light are an image which deserves to be lived with.

We know that the Horses of Light were connected to the initial incident which initiated the fall of the Eternal Man into disunity. The Horses of Light belonged to Urizen, the Prince of Light but he agreed to exchange them with Luvah, the Cup Bearer of the Eternals for the Wine of the Almighty.


Four Zoas, Night V, Page 64, (E 344)
[Urizen speaks]
I well remember for I heard the mild & holy voice
Saying O light spring up & shine & I sprang up from the deep 
He gave to me a silver scepter & crownd me with a golden crown
& said Go forth & guide my Son who wanders on the ocean      

I went not forth. I hid myself in black clouds of my wrath       
I calld the stars around my feet in the night of councils dark
The stars threw down their spears & fled naked away
We fell. I siezd thee dark Urthona In my left hand falling

I siezd thee beauteous Luvah thou art faded like a flower
And like a lilly is thy wife Vala witherd by winds               
When thou didst bear the golden cup at the immortal tables
Thy children smote their fiery wings crownd with the gold of heaven
PAGE 65 
Thy pure feet stepd on the steps divine. too pure for other feet
And thy fair locks shadowd thine eyes from the divine effulgence
Then thou didst keep with Strong Urthona the living gates of heaven
But now thou art bound down with him even to the gates of hell

Because thou gavest Urizen the wine of the Almighty             
For steeds of Light that they might run in thy golden chariot of pride
I gave to thee the Steeds   I pourd the stolen wine
And drunken with the immortal draught fell from my throne sublime"

In Blake's Milton there is has an account of a similar exchange. Palamabron was convinced to relinquish the Harrow of the Almighty to Satan, Prince of the Starry Hosts and the Wheels of Heaven. Palamabron would assume the labor at Satan's Mills. However Palamabron could not control Satan's horses: the energies which provide order in the universe.  Nor could Satan maintain order among the horses and servants who with Palamabron provided the conditions for the work of the Almighty to proceed.
Milton, Plate 4, (E 97)                                       
"Beneath the Plow of Rintrah & the harrow of the Almighty 
In the hands of Palamabron. Where the Starry Mills of Satan
Are built beneath the Earth & Waters of the Mundane Shell
Here the Three Classes of Men take their Sexual texture Woven
The Sexual is Threefold: the Human is Fourfold" 
Milton, Plate 7, (E 100)
"The first, The Elect from before the foundation of the World:
The second, The Redeem'd. The Third, The Reprobate & form'd
To destruction from the mothers womb: follow with me my plow! 

Of the first class was Satan: with incomparable mildness;
His primitive tyrannical attempts on Los: with most endearing love    
He soft intreated Los to give to him Palamabrons station;
For Palamabron returnd with labour wearied every evening
Palamabron oft refus'd; and as often Satan offer'd
His service till by repeated offers and repeated intreaties
Los gave to him the Harrow of the Almighty; alas blamable      
Palamabron. fear'd to be angry lest Satan should accuse him of
Ingratitude, & Los believe the accusation thro Satans extreme
Mildness. Satan labour'd all day. it was a thousand years
In the evening returning terrified overlabourd & astonish'd
Embrac'd soft with a brothers tears Palamabron, who also wept  

Mark well my words! they are of your eternal salvation

Next morning Palamabron rose: the horses of the Harrow
Were maddend with tormenting fury, & the servants of the Harrow
The Gnomes, accus'd Satan, with indignation fury and fire."

Milton, Plate 8, (E 101)
"Mean while wept Satan before Los, accusing Palamabron;
Himself exculpating with mildest speech. for himself believ'd
That he had not opress'd nor injur'd the refractory servants.

But Satan returning to his Mills (for Palamabron had serv'd
The Mills of Satan as the easier task) found all confusion     
And back return'd to Los, not fill'd with vengeance but with tears,
Himself convinc'd of Palamabrons turpitude. Los beheld
The servants of the Mills drunken with wine and dancing wild
With shouts and Palamabrons songs, rending the forests green
With ecchoing confusion, tho' the Sun was risen on high.       

Then Los took off his left sandal placing it on his head,
Signal of solemn mourning: when the servants of the Mills
Beheld the signal they in silence stood, tho' drunk with wine.
Los wept! But Rintrah also came, and Enitharmon on
His arm lean'd tremblingly observing all these things          
And Los said. Ye Genii of the Mills! the Sun is on high
Your labours call you! Palamabron is also in sad dilemma;
His horses are mad! his Harrow confounded! his companions enrag'd.
Mine is the fault! I should have remember'd that pity divides the soul
And man, unmans: follow with me my Plow. this mournful day    
Must be a blank in Nature: follow with me, and tomorrow again
Resume your labours, & this day shall be a mournful day"

Perhaps we can apply what Jung said about form and energy in relationship to the archetypes, to what Blake was saying about the exchange of psychic roles among his characters. On page 36 of Four Archetypes, by C. G. Jung, he states:

"The structure is something given, the precondition that is found to be present in every case. And this is the mother, the matrix - the form into which all experience is poured. The father, on the other hand, represents the dynamism of the archetype, for the archetype consists of both - form and energy."

If Blake's Zoas are archetypal figures it is appropriate to present them a being comprised of both a static and a dynamic component. The energy of the Zoa, according to Blake's system, will cause disastrous consequences if handed over to another Zoa. 

.

Saturday, January 5, 2019

TRUTH & LIES

Yale Center for British Art
Young's Night Thoughts
To Blake a lie is not a minor thing. Since mental things alone are real, to believe a lie or to promulgate a lie, is to distort reality. If the soul is awake man sees not with his natural vision but with his spiritual vision which discerns truth.

It would be impossible to engage in deceit of others and maintain the ability to recognize truth in its eternal sense. The windows of perception must be kept clean in order for the infinite to appear. But Blake tells us that if we attempt to 'Defend a Lie' we 'may be snared & caught & taken.' Deceit is not permanent because it 'forges fetters for the mind' which will be 'Burnt up the Moment Men cease to behold it.'

To cast off all that is false and to receive all that is true is the nature and purpose of life.
Milton, Plate 8, (E 102)
"But Palamabron called down a Great Solemn Assembly,
That he who will not defend Truth, may be compelled to
Defend a Lie, that he may be snared & caught & taken"

Songs and Ballads, Auguries of Innocence, (E 492)
"Every Night & every Morn
Some to Misery are Born 
Every Morn & every Night
Some are Born to sweet delight
Some are Born to sweet delight
Some are Born to Endless Night
We are led to Believe a Lie 
When we see not Thro the Eye 
Which was Born in a Night to perish in a Night
When the Soul Slept in Beams of Light"

Everlasting Gospel, (E 520)
"When the Soul fell into Sleep
And Archangels round it weep
Shooting out against the Light
Fibres of a deadly night        
Reasoning upon its own Dark Fiction
In Doubt which is Self Contradiction
Humility is only Doubt
And does the Sun & Moon blot out
Rooting over with thorns & stems     
The buried Soul & all its Gems
This Lifes dim Windows of the Soul
Distorts the Heavens from Pole to Pole
And leads you to Believe a Lie
When you see with not thro the Eye   
That was born in a night to perish in a night
When the Soul slept in the beams of Light.

Annotations to Bacon, (E 621)
"What Bacon calls Lies is Truth itself"

Songs and Ballads, Auguries of Innocence, (E 491)
"A truth thats told with bad intent
Beats all the Lies you can invent"
             
Songs and Ballads, (E 472)
"Love to faults is always blind
Always is to joy inclind                             
Lawless wingd & unconfind                       
And breaks all chains from every mind

Deceit to secresy confind                
Lawful cautious & refind                        
To every thing but interest blind               
And forges fetters for the mind"      

Vision of Last Judgment, (E 565)
 The Last Judgment is an Overwhelming of Bad Art & Science. 
Mental Things are alone Real what is Calld Corporeal Nobody Knows
of its Dwelling Place   it is in Fallacy & its Existence an
Imposture  Where is the Existence Out of Mind or Thought Where is
it but in the Mind of a Fool.  Some People flatter themselves
that there will be No Last Judgment & that Bad Art will be
adopted & mixed with Good Art That Error or Experiment will make
a Part of Truth & they Boast that it is its Foundation   these
People flatter themselves   I will not Flatter them Error is
Created   Truth is Eternal   Error or Creation will be Burned Up &
then & not till then Truth or Eternity will appear   It is Burnt up
the Moment Men cease to behold it" 
Vision of Last Judgment, (E 562)
"All Life consists of these Two Throwing off Error 
continually & recieving Truth  Continually." 
. 

Saturday, December 22, 2018

FORGIVING 5

Yale Center for British Art
Jerusalem
Plate 76
Matthew 28
[16] Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them. [17] And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted. 
[18] And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. 
[19] Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 
[20] Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.  

In Jerusalem, Plate 62 Blake has informed us that we are participating in a visionary experience. It is not the time frame of the natural world but of the Eternal world. Although the incidents and characters exist in the physical world the action is in the Eternal dimension.

The conversation has gone from Mary to Joseph, then back to Mary with a new consciousness. Jerusalem enters to take up the passage through the world of Joy & Woe into which the infant Jesus was thrust. This final segment transfers our attention to the Eternal Jesus who in his Resurrected Body joins Jerusalem in her journey.

The passage is through the world of Luvah and Vala where the turmoil of the emotions is acted out in physical conflict and suffering. Although there is mental and physical pain to be endured, it need not be carried alone. Faith, Trust and Love will sustain those who rely not on 'individual perception' but who 'Die & pass the limits of possibility.'

The panoply which has been spread before us is witnessed by Los - the ability to perceive through Imagination. He has the ability to see beyond the destructive forces of Annihilation to the creative events of renewal.
Jerusalem, Plate 62, (E 213)
"Jesus replied. I am the Resurrection & the Life.
I Die & pass the limits of possibility, as it appears
To individual perception. Luvah must be Created                  
And Vala; for I cannot leave them in the gnawing Grave.
But will prepare a way for my banished-ones to return
Come now with me into the villages. walk thro all the cities.
Tho thou art taken to prison & judgment, starved in the streets
I will command the cloud to give thee food & the hard rock       
To flow with milk & wine, tho thou seest me not a season
Even a long season & a hard journey & a howling wilderness!
Tho Valas cloud hide thee & Luvahs fires follow thee!
Only believe & trust in me, Lo. I am always with thee!

So spoke the Lamb of God while Luvahs Cloud reddening above      
Burst forth in streams of blood upon the heavens & dark night
Involvd Jerusalem. & the Wheels of Albions Sons turnd hoarse
Over the Mountains & the fires blaz'd on Druid Altars
And the Sun set in Tyburns Brook where Victims howl & cry.

But Los beheld the Divine Vision among the flames of the Furnaces
Therefore he lived & breathed in hope. but his tears fell incessant
Because his Children were closd from him apart: & Enitharmon
Dividing in fierce pain: also the Vision of God was closd in clouds
Of Albions Spectres, that Los in despair oft sat, & often ponderd
On Death Eternal in fierce shudders upon the mountains of Albion 
Walking: & in the vales in howlings fierce, then to his Anvils
Turning, anew began his labours, tho in terrible pains!"
.

Friday, December 21, 2018

FORGIVING 4

Yale Center for British Art
  Jerusalem
  Plate 26
John 20
[11] But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre,
[12] And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.
[13] And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him.
[14] And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.
[15] Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away.
[16] Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni; which is to say, Master.
[17] Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God.
[18] Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her.

Blake shifted his attention from situations around the birth of Jesus to developments around the religion introduced by Jesus. Of concern to Blake was how Christianity in the person of Jerusalem who received the infant from Mary, found that control of the message passed out of her hands. Although the life of Christ was within her, the world was not prepared to receive her. Under the conditions which existed she was an outcast observing the consequences of the material side dominating the spiritual nature implicit in the incarnation.

Instead of seeing spiritualizing of the material she found that the spiritual became materialized.

Jerusalem was the emanation of Albion and as an emanation was incomplete without her counterpart. Until there was an awakening of Albion (representing Humanity) who had turned away from consciousness of the Divine, Jerusalem was condemned to being treated as an outcast. This was the status which Blake saw in his lifetime: England had turned away from traditional Christianity toward Deism with its concept of a distant God who is unconcerned with the affairs of man.

Jerusalem, Plate 61, (E 212)
"Mary leaned her side against Jerusalem, Jerusalem received
The Infant into her hands in the Visions of Jehovah. Times passed on
Jerusalem fainted over the Cross & Sepulcher She heard the voice
Wilt thou make Rome thy Patriarch Druid & the Kings of Europe his
Horsemen? Man in the Resurrection changes his Sexual Garments at will
Every Harlot was once a Virgin: every Criminal an Infant Love!
Plate 62
Repose on me till the morning of the Grave. I am thy life.

Jerusalem replied. I am an outcast: Albion is dead!
I am left to the trampling foot & the spurning heel!
A Harlot I am calld. I am sold from street to street!
I am defaced with blows & with the dirt of the Prison!
And wilt thou become my Husband O my Lord & Saviour?
Shall Vala bring thee forth! shall the Chaste be ashamed also?
I see the Maternal Line, I behold the Seed of the Woman!
Cainah, & Ada & Zillah & Naamah Wife of Noah.
Shuahs daughter & Tamar & Rahab the Canaanites:                  
Ruth the Moabite & Bathsheba of the daughters of Heth
Naamah the Ammonite, Zibeah the Philistine, & Mary
These are the Daughters of Vala, Mother of the Body of death
But I thy Magdalen behold thy Spiritual Risen Body
Shall Albion arise? I know he shall arise at the Last Day!
I know that in my flesh I shall see God: but Emanations
Are weak. they know not whence they are, nor whither tend."


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