Illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts
Frye points out that Blake's Zoas are analogous to Freud's divisions of the psyche. Since Freud's terminology is so familiar now that it is part of our everyday vocabulary, it can be helpful to think of Luvah as 'libido', Tharmas as 'id', and Urizen as 'Superego.' Blake, of course, adds a female component to each of his Zoas. The 'libido' must include Vala, the 'id' must include Enion and the 'superego' must include Ahania.
If we apply Freud's divisions as being in a dynamic system that controls the thought and behavior of the individual, we better understand the interactions among the Zoas and their Emanations. Blake however adds dimensions drawn from history, philosophy, religion, geography and contemporary situations to augment the psychological portrait he paints. It is the layers of insight that makes Blake's challenging and engrossing.
Blake postulates a Fourfold humanity as man exists in Eden but when man descends to Beulah and his perception of Eternity becomes limited, his experience becomes 'sexual' or Threefold. Blake describes this in therms of the heart, head and loins. So it is Blake's fallen man to which we can apply the terminology and dynamics which were developed by Freud.
A Glossary of Freudian Terms
Coagulated by Craig Chalquist, PhD,
Id (Es): the permanently unconscious motivational cauldron of the mind. From the id (the "it") originate all the drives that impel psychic life. A "residue of countless egos" inherited from prior generations, the id is the amoral beast within us that seeks only its own gratification through tension discharge. It is powered by the bodily instincts and is wholly irrational. Analogous to the job of the imperialist and the industrialist, the job of the ego is to dominate it. (The term id comes from Groddeck, who got it from Nietzsche.)
Libido: the psychosexual energy originating in the id. Libido is the electric current of the mechanism of personality. It powers all psychological operations, invests desires, and undergoes ready displacement. It is the basic fuel of the self. Because it is of a relatively fixed quantity, like gasoline in a tank, it obeys laws of psychical "economy" in that a surplus in one system means a loss somewhere else. It can be either free or bound (Breuer's term).
Superego (Uber-Ich): formed out of but less conscious than the ego, an agency that safeguards society from uncontrolled acting out by giving the person an internalization of all environmental inhibitions, particularly those of the parents. Developed as a result of
The basic philosophical difference between Freud and Jung can be seen in terms of Jung's recognition of the world of spirit which has influences which are unpredictable and imperceptible to the five senses. Freud's system did not allow for a numinous milieu acting in the world and in human minds. Blake like Jung perceived of the psyche as including the intuitive faculty through which the imagination connected humanity with the unseen spiritual dimension.
Milton, Plate 4, (E 97) "Beneath the Plow of Rintrah & the harrow of the Almighty In the hands of Palamabron. Where the Starry Mills of Satan Are built beneath the Earth & Waters of the Mundane Shell Here the Three Classes of Men take their Sexual texture Woven The Sexual is Threefold: the Human is Fourfold" Milton, Plate 5, (E 98) "And this is the manner of the Daughters of Albion in their beauty Every one is threefold in Head & Heart & Reins, & every one Has three Gates into the Three Heavens of Beulah which shine Translucent in their Foreheads & their Bosoms & their Loins Surrounded with fires unapproachable: but whom they please They take up into their Heavens in intoxicating delight" Jerusalem, Plate 98, (E 257) "The Druid Spectre was Annihilate loud thundring rejoicing terrific vanishing Fourfold Annihilation & at the clangor of the Arrows of Intellect The innumerable Chariots of the Almighty appeard in Heaven And Bacon & Newton & Locke, & Milton & Shakspear & Chaucer A Sun of blood red wrath surrounding heaven on all sides around Glorious incomprehensible by Mortal Man & each Chariot was Sexual Threefold And every Man stood Fourfold, each Four Faces had." Four Zoas, Night VII, Page 87, (E 368) "They Builded Golgonooza Los labouring builded pillars high And Domes terrific in the nether heavens for beneath Was opend new heavens & a new Earth beneath & within Threefold within the brain within the heart within the loins A Threefold Atmosphere Sublime continuous from Urthonas world But yet having a Limit Twofold named Satan & Adam" Crystal Cabinet, (E 488) "Another Maiden like herself Translucent lovely shining clear Threefold each in the other closd O what a pleasant trembling fear O what a smile a threefold Smile Filld me that like a flame I burnd I bent to Kiss the lovely Maid And found a Threefold Kiss returnd I strove to sieze the inmost Form With ardor fierce & hands of flame But burst the Crystal Cabinet And like a Weeping Babe became"
Milton, Plate 20 , (E 114) "Seest thou the little winged fly, smaller than a grain of sand? It has a heart like thee; a brain open to heaven & hell, Withinside wondrous & expansive; its gates are not clos'd, I hope thine are not: hence it clothes itself in rich array; Hence thou art cloth'd with human beauty O thou mortal man. Seek not thy heavenly father then beyond the skies: There Chaos dwells & ancient Night & Og & Anak old: For every human heart has gates of brass & bars of adamant, Which few dare unbar because dread Og & Anak guard the gates Terrific! and each mortal brain is walld and moated round Within: and Og & Anak watch here; here is the Seat Of Satan in its Webs; for in brain and heart and loins Gates open behind Satans Seat to the City of Golgonooza Which is the spiritual fourfold London, in the loins of Albion Thus Milton fell thro Albions heart, travelling outside of Humanity Beyond the Stars in Chaos in Caverns of the Mundane Shell." Milton, Plate 14, (E 148) "And Los beheld his Sons, and he beheld his Daughters: Every one a translucent Wonder: a Universe within, Increasing inwards, into length and breadth, and heighth: Starry & glorious: and they every one in their bright loins: Have a beautiful golden gate which opens into the vegetative world: And every one a gate of rubies & all sorts of precious stones In their translucent hearts, which opens into the vegetative world: And every one a gate of iron dreadful and wonderful, In their translucent heads, which opens into the vegetative world And every one has the three regions Childhood: Manhood: & Age: But the gate of the tongue: the western gate in them is clos'd, Having a wall builded against it: and thereby the gates Eastward & Southward & Northward, are incircled with flaming fires. And the North is Breadth, the South is Heighth & Depth: The East is Inwards: & the West is Outwards every way."